A very different theory that makes use of the cognitive shortcut idea is the Elaboration Likelihood Model or ELM in short. It was proposed in 1979 that information can be processed through a central or a peripheral path. When recipients process via the central route they think about a message extensively. The message passes through the different processing stages. The peripheral route however is a shortcut. Its activated by so called peripheral cues.
Like humor, credibility of the source, fear, or desire. The theory tells us that persuasive attempts should take into consideration the predispositions of the audience, specifically a) the motivation to understand a message and b) the ability to understand that message. An example. Let’s say Tom wants to buy a car. He wants the best one out there within his price range so he is a) motivated to compare information on cars.
And also lets assume tom is b) able to understand the information that different brochures and websites give him. Because Tom is both motivated and able, the central route of persuasion will probably yield the best persuasive result. Having sexy models on the hood of his car will less likely persuade him. His friend Charles is also looking for a car.
He is perhaps able to compare cars but actually not so motivated to go through all of these sites and brochures, like Tom is. Therefore the peripheral cue of the sexy model will perhaps work on him. These are just some examples of many theories on cognitive shortcuts. Its important for every student of communication to understand to some degree how and why cognitive shortcuts work. Every one has them.
The Cholinergic Receptors
voiceover the cholinergic receptors. This is a highyield topic. You really need to understand this when you’re going into your boards or exams. These receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and they use Acetylcholine.
As their neurotransmitter. Thus, they can also be referred to as Acetylcholine Receptors, and their abbreviation is ACh for Acetylcholine and R for Receptor. There are two main types of these Cholinergic Receptors: the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.
And the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors are named such because they are responsive to both Acetylcholine and Nicotine. They are ionotropic receptors, meaning that they are ligandgated ion channels.
When stimulated by their neurotransmitter, they themselves become an ion channel. The Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors, on the other hand, are named such because they are responsive to Acetylcholine and Muscarine. They are a different kind of receptor.
They’re what’s called a metabotropic receptor, meaning that they act through a second messenger system, which in this case refers to the fact that they are G proteincoupled receptors. Let’s talk about the Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors first, and this is abbreviated the same as what we’ve seen,.
Achr, except now with an n in front of it to denote Nicotine. So the Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors, they’re directly linked to ion gated channels, as I previously said. There is no second messenger system here. The receptor is a physical part of the ion channel.
These ion channels are made of five subunits, and they’re arranged symmetrically around a central pore through which ions travel when opened. Also, each of these five subunits is made of four domains, which we might talk about later. However, it’s not necessarily highyield right now.
When stimulated by either acetylcholine or, remember, these are Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors, so either Acetylcholine or Nicotine can stimulate them, there is an initial stimulation, an initial opening, followed by a blockage or a refractory period. This is important and interesting to talk about.